Star Constellation Facts: Pisces, the Fish

Star Constellation Facts: Pisces, the Fish
Alexander Jamieson’s Celestial Atlas (1822)

Pisces (“the fish”) is a zodiac constellation that is shaped to symbolize two fish tied together with a rope. While it is the 14th largest constellation in the night sky, it is still a challenge to spot in the night sky with its brightest stars, Eta Piscium, a faint yellow giant of just 3.62 magnitude, and located around 294 light years from Earth.

Location: A Northern Constellation

Pisces is a northern hemisphere constellation seen between latitudes +90° and -65°, and  located in a region of the sky called “The Heavenly Waters”, or the “Sea”. The easternmost fish of the constellation can be found just beneath Andromeda, and the westernmost fish just below the Great Square of Pegasus, with the imaginary line connecting the two travelling southwards in the direction of Cetus.

Best Seen: Autumn

Although the constellation is located in the northern sky, it is bisected by the ecliptic, meaning that it is visible from both hemispheres at different times in the year. From the northern hemisphere, Pisces is best seen in autumn, and in the southern hemisphere in spring. The ancient Greeks also welcomed Pisces as a sign of improving weather, of the two fish, one sees the end of winter, the other the beginning of spring.

Mythology: Represents Venus and Cupid

The constellation is most commonly associated with Aphrodite (Venus) and her son Eros (Cupid), who transformed themselves into fish in order to escape the terrifying giant Typhon. The immortal monster had been sent by Gaia (mother earth) to punish the gods for defeating their predecessors, the Titans, and the story goes that before turning themselves into fish, they tied each other to a piece of rope at each end so they would not lose one another in the turbulence of the water.

Shape: “V”

Pisces is 14th largest constellations, taking up an area of 889 square degrees in the northern sky. In terms of its shape, the constellations looks like a large “V”, with a “circle” of stars on each end of the “V”. The base of the “V”, which is said to represent the cord that ties the fish together, is formed by the star Alrescha (Alpha Piscium). The Great Square of Pegasus seems to fit neatly into the “V” of Pisces, which makes finding the “fish” to either side of the Great Square easy.

Notable Stars: None Brighter Than 4th Magnitude

Star Constellation Facts: Pisces, the FishAlthough Pisces has no bright stars, the constellation is known for its large, massive stars, some of which are described below-

– Kullat Nunu (Eta Piscium) is located about 294 light years away, and with an apparent visual magnitude of 3.62 is the most luminous star in the constellation. Classified as a yellow giant, the star is 26 times as big as the Sun, about 4 times as massive, and at least 316 times as bright. Eta Piscium has a faint companion star around one second of arc away.

Gamma Piscium is a class G9III yellow giant, and the second-most luminous star in the constellation. It is located about 138 light years away, and has an apparent visual magnitude of 3.699. The star is ten times as big as the Sun, and 61 times as luminous. Gamma Piscium is one of the starts that make up the Circlet of Pisces asterism that represents the head of the western “fish” in the constellation.

– Delta Piscium is a suspected binary star located about 305 light years away, with a combined apparent visual magnitude of 4.43. The primary star in the system is an orange giant with a K5III classification, making it 380 times as bright as the Sun, and about 44 times as big. Being only two degrees from the ecliptic, the Moon regularly occults the star.

Notable Objects: Many Galaxies

– Messier 74 (M74, NGC 628) is located about 30 million light years away, and is an excellent example of a grand-design spiral galaxy seen face-on. With a low surface brightness that gives is an apparent visual magnitude of 10.0, it is the most challenging Messier object for amateur observers to find and observe. Look for M47 about 1.5 degrees toward the east-northeast of the most luminous star in Pisces, Eta Piscium. The galaxy is thought to contain around 100 billion stars.

– CL 0024+1654 is a huge cluster that is made up of mainly yellow elliptical and spiral galaxies located about 3.6 billion light years away. A notable feature of the cluster is the fact that it acts as a gravitational lens, bringing to the fore at least 4 images of a galaxy located about 2.1 billion light years behind it – at 4, 10, 11, and 12 o’clock from the center of the grouping of yellow galaxies.

– Pisces Dwarf (PGC 3792) is a small, dim, irregular galaxy that belongs to the Local Group of Galaxies, with an apparent visual magnitude of 14.2 located about 2.5 million light years away. Measurements suggest that most of the galaxy’s stars are about 8 billion years old, and although star formation has slowed down considerably, several small star forming regions still exist in the outer fringes of the galaxy. The galaxy is suspected to be a satellite of the Triangulum Galaxy (M33), located in the constellation Triangulum.

Planets: 41+ Known

All told, Pisces has 39 stars with 41 planets between them. The star 54 Piscium, for instance, has one planet of about the same mass as Saturn orbiting it once every 52 days. Another star in Pisces, 6 G. Piscium, is a yellow star 65 light-years distant, with two planets in its orbit.

Meteor Showers: The Piscids

Pisces has just one meteor shower associated with it called The Piscids. This weak shower runs from August 12th to October 7th, with a peak that runs from about September 11th to September 20th. Observers can expect to see a maximum rate of about 5 meteors per hour. A suspected northern branch of the Piscids could peak on October 12th, but the existence of this branch is yet to be confirmed.

Astrological Associations

In astrology, the Sun is said to pass in front of this constellation between February 20th and March 20th at the time of the March equinox. In astronomy however, the Sun actually passes though the constellation of Pisces from March 12th to April 18th, which is about a month later, after which time the Sun appears in the constellation Aries. Other astrological associations are”

Date of Birth: Feb 19 to March 20
Sign Ruler: Neptune
Element: Water
Birth Stone: Lapis Lazuli, Turquoise
Metal: Platinum
Color: Turquoise, sea green, white
Characteristics: Dedicated, kind, good-humoured
Compatibility: Scorpio, Cancer and Capricorn

The Age of Pisces

An astrological age refers to which constellation the Sun appears in at the time of the Vernal Equinox, or the first day of spring. From an astronomical perspective, we are currently living in the age of Pisces, which started in 68 BCE and will continue until 2597 when the Age of Aquarius begins. Every 2,150 years, the age changes, and many people believe that different ages are meant to bring different historical events that are predestined to shape the course of the future. After the Age of Pisces will enter the Age of Aquarius.